The history of Arte Povera movement (literally ‘poor art’) took place between the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s in major cities throughout Italy. It emerged as a radical reaction to modern art to become one of the seminal art movements of the 20th century. Artists began attacking the values of established institutions of government, industry, and culture. Key figures are amongst others: Pistoletto, Schifano, Manzoni. Paolini, Kounellis, Calzolari, Merz and Anselmo.